Indian ice cream market forecast to grow by 17%

With an expanding middle class population base, rising purchasing power, coupled with changing customer tastes and growing demand for premium ice creams, India will drive an expanding ice cream market through 2021 according to a report recently published by TechSci Research.

“India Ice Cream Market By Type, By Organized Vs Unorganized Sector, By Category, Competition Forecast & Opportunities, 2011-2021”, the ice cream market in India is forecast to exhibit a CAGR of 17.03% during 2016-2021. 

The Ice cream market in India has grown at a moderate pace over the past few years, due to the  increasing number of international ice cream brands entering the market, improving cold storage facilities, coupled with changing consumer taste. 
In addition, India is the largest producer of milk, with the country accounting for over 1/5th of global milk production, thereby offering ice cream in a country with a large volume of raw material for manufacturing of ice cream. GDP per capita of India has increased from USD1390 in 2010 to 1580 in 2015, positively impacting on the ice cream market in India. 
Furthermore, growing inclination towards eating ice cream outside, a growing number of flavours, coupled with rising purchasing power are further expected to drive the Indian ice cream market during the forecast period.

West India dominated the India ice cream market in 2015, and is further anticipated to continue dominate in the coming years, owing to presence of leading players in the ice cream market in India such as Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation, National Dairy Development Board, Vadilal, etc.

A growing dairy industry, coupled with high population density in the region, the India ice cream market was dominated by impulse category of ice creams in 2015, and this category is further expected to continue its dominance during the forecast period, owing to growing demand for premium ice creams and changing consumer taste.

“Ice cream were considered a luxury food product, however with changing taste and preference of consumers, which propelled growth in India ice cream market over the past few years. Moreover, growing demand for natural and traditional flavoured ice cream, coupled with increasing penetration of international brands, improvement in cold chain infrastructure and rapid urbanisation to drive India ice cream market during the forecast period.”, said Mr. Karan Chechi, Research Director with TechSci Research.

“India Ice Cream Market By Type, By Organised Vs Unorganised Sector, By Category, Competition Forecast & Opportunities, 2011-2021” has evaluated the future growth potential of India ice cream market and provides statistics and information on market structure, size, share and future growth. The report is intended to provide cutting-edge market intelligence and help decision makers to take sound investment evaluation.

Expert advice on keeping your machinery in tip top condition

With the New Year fast approaching, it’s time to start thinking about getting your machines in premium condition for a problem-free, productive season throughout 2017. 

At Machinery World, the service department have taken some time out from planning a comprehensive servicing schedule from January onwards to talk through some of the most common problems they have encountered, and to offer some preventative advice.

Senior engineer Russell Jex has been with Machinery World for over six years, and has resolved breakdowns from the obvious to the extreme, but he firmly believes it’s the simple problems that are the most frustrating:

Whilst the last thing anyone wants is a major problem like a cracked dasher or leaking barrel, I often feel it is worse when production stops for something small, as this could so easily be prevented.
The most common unscheduled repairs we do are usually to do with leakage issues, because an o-ring needs replacing, or a mechanical seal has gone,” he explains. “Problems with the refrigeration process, like gas leaks, or unstable aeration, which makes the ice cream unsaleable because the weight isn’t consistent, come a close second – and then there’s always a simple bearing collapse to bring production to a swift and grinding halt.

Before jetting off to Ghana for ROKK’s latest installation, he commented, 

All of these breakdowns are costly for ice cream producers, especially the smaller operators, as it can mean they have to stop production altogether whilst they wait for an engineer to come out. At Machinery World we pride ourselves on solving our customers’ unscheduled repairs the same day, or the day after at the very latest. Breakdowns can be hugely frustrating for small businesses – but can easily be avoided.

The three-strong service team advocate a prevention rather than cure approach as Martin Alexander explains: “Customers booking an annual service very rarely have a simple fault breakdown, as we spot any wear and tear and potential weak spots, replace seals and gaskets and carry out preventative maintenance to ensure machines are in prime condition to keep working at their peak throughout the season. Whilst some owners may baulk at the idea of paying for a service when their machines seem to be working fine, it often proves to be a false economy, with machines breaking down just when you need them most.”

Regular servicing also means that ice cream manufacturers have the correct paperwork in place for audit, or a potentially lucrative deal with a supermarket chain.

And the other top tip for a deliciously trouble-free season comes from Machinery World’s newest service department recruit, Chris Wilson.

I’ve been part of the team for a year now, learning more and more each day, and that’s what is just as critical for our customers – knowledge. Good staff training both in terms of how to operate the machines, and also knowing the importance of keeping them spotlessly clean can prevent so many problems and greatly extend the life – and productivity – of your machine.”

But the team don’t just repair machines: Another important aspect of their role is to deliver, set up and test new machinery, and of course, train customers on their new purchases. But new doesn’t always need to mean brand new: whilst Machinery World stock some of the industry’s best equipment including exceptional artisan equipment from the famous Cattabriga stable, budget-priced but mighty Promag machines, Coldelite CK blast freezers and their sister company ROKK’s brand new machines, the company is also the UK’s premier stockist of second hand machinery, which is fully-serviced prior to dispatch from Machinery World’s superbly equipped workshop.

There are a tremendous number of small firms just starting out in the ice cream business who simply can’t afford to buy new at the outset, so we can offer them an excellent choice of top quality used machines as an alternative.

says Russell.

Our experienced sales team can talk to them about their aspirations as well as their budget, to find the solution that works best for them, which could mean one larger machine, or perhaps several smaller machines, so they can do lots of different flavours at the same time.

When existing customers need to replace their machines, they find added benefits to working with the close-knit team at Machinery World, as UK sales director Phil Darvell explains:

Because our service department is a team of three, they know their customers, their customer’s businesses and their machinery inside out,” says Phil, “which means that when the time comes to reinvest the sales and service teams pool their knowledge and expertise to ensure our customers purchase the best possible machine for their individual needs.

Shortly after John Clement took over his tenure at Lovingtons Ice Cream, having spoken to the engineers as well as the sales team and to satisfy demand for their growing 125ml pot business he purchased a ROKK RR3800 rotary filler, now the centre piece machine in Lovingtons’ BRC AA grade approved production site.

This ROKK is exactly the right machine for our business,” says John. “We are continually impressed by the industry-leading expertise within the Machinery World Group of companies, and the outstanding professionalism, response times and support given to Lovingtons over the years.

Please contact the service team at Machinery World to book-in your annual service now, on 01455 220179 or follow the links to find out more about the range of new and used machines available.

Photo caption: The Machinery World Service team, L-R: Chris Wilson, Russell Jex and Martin Alexander

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Meet the team at Machinery World

The Machinery World Service Team, L-R Martin Alexander, Russell Jex and Chris Wilson. Photo courtesy of Chris.

At Machinery World, it’s the small things that make a big difference: the minute attention to detail that goes into every repair, the bespoke tools developed to solve problems more efficiently, and the size of the service department, where a team of just three ensure that around 300 ice cream machines are kept in tip top running order each year.

The service department is led by senior engineer Russell Jex, a refrigeration focused electrical, mechanical and maintenance engineer who has been at Machinery World for six years – and it’s the variety of the job that keeps him smiling as he roars to work on his SUZUKI SV650S motorbike.

No two days are ever the same in Russell’s job and he’s frequently out on the road servicing customer’s machines on site, from Macclesfield to Mauritius and Guildford to Ghana.

“Along with an on-going programme of servicing contracts, commissioning and training on brand new machines, we also try to get out and fix unscheduled breakdowns the very same day, or at the latest, the day after,” explains Russell, “which means great teamwork is essential, as we schedule jobs between us to ensure we provide the best possible service to all our customers.

 “There are 30 – 40 different manufacturers, each with 10 – 15 models of machines – and then there’s the different years too, of course, with upgraded components, so we have an extensive library of manuals – both physical and in our heads. 

“Whilst the principles of the machines are the same, they all dismantle differently and there’s a wide range of things that can go wrong,” he continues. “I love the challenge of diagnosing the fault, then fixing it as quickly as possible so our customers can get on with the serious business of making ice cream – particularly honeycomb, my personal favourite.”

In fixing faults efficiently, the team have a secret weapon – the awesome ability of Martin Alexander to make unique tools and equipment from a simple drawing or concept. 

“I’ve been at Machinery World for four years now, and put my background in engineering, welding and fabricating to good use creating tools to help us do the job better and faster,” explains Martin.  “We discuss jobs between us in the workshop, and if one of us has had a tricky experience, say removing an old, crusted part, then I’ll design and build a specialist tool to make the job easier and quicker the next time around.”

Martin’s unique toolkit is supplemented by the more traditional tools – and the teams’ mobile workshop vans.

“We always try to fix the problem before we leave site,” says Chris Wilson, the newest member of the team at eight months in, who came to the workshop to set up an apprenticeship scheme with North Warwickshire College, and decided it was actually the perfect job for him. “So we’ll take a full kit of parts, supplied by our own spares department, Dairy Bits, for the machine we’ll be working on. Our vans are also loaded with vices, heavy tools and, of course, our Martin specials and we pride ourselves on finding solutions and getting the customer up and running again the very same day.”

The only exceptions would be if a major part had failed – but even under these circumstances, the intrepid trio won’t take no for an answer as customer Sebastian Parker at Callestick Farm in Cornwall can testify:

“There was a crack in the dasher in my Soren CS1500 which would have meant a replacement part, but Russ and co suggested we chop it in half and re-weld it.  The dasher spins quite fast, so it had to be welded perfectly straight, right there on the farm.”

The farm’s own welder Ray carried out the repair under the watchful eye of Russell – and two years on, the machine has once again flown through its annual service.

So with no two days the same, what do each of the three Machinery World engineers like best about their jobs?

“For me it’s the customer satisfaction, the relationships we build and the service we can provide,” says Russell.  “Because there’s only three of us, and we work specifically on post-pasteurisation machinery, we know our customers, their machines and the machine history inside out.  Our customers will always see a familiar face and have the reassurance that if their machine can be fixed, then we’ll fix it.”

“I like the variety of work, and the new skills I’m learning every day,” says Chris, “but the best thing of all is the atmosphere and camaraderie across the whole of the workforce.  This is a family business and that really comes through, as when a job needs doing, be it strapping machines onto a container or jet washing the vans and warehouse in advance of a customer visit, we all work together as a team.”

“It has to be the freedom Machinery World give me to design and create tools and gadgets which help us, and our customers,” says Martin.  “One of my recent projects has been to design and build a flexible filling arm, which both supports the filling pipe and takes all the strain off the person, enabling the operative to put the tub on the table and move the pipe around instead.  The pipe is self-supporting off the freezer and, whilst I designed it originally for the ROKK 600, the fixings are universal, so it can be used on all continuous freezer models. 

“The job satisfaction when you see one of your creations being used by customers is second to none.”

To find out more about the service department, visit www.machineryworld.co.uk/machinery-service

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Are savoury flavours the next big thing in ice cream?

Olive oil, sea salt and even black pepper could become popular ingredients in ice cream. 

Olive oil and ice cream emerged as a flavour sold by retailers in 2015, gaining ground in foodservice and online bloggers for a few years. Adding olive oil in the recipe is said to provide texture benefits to ice cream, as it adds a additional creamy – yet not oily – texture, while the flavour is said to add subtle grassy and nutty notes. While you’re more likely to find olive oil flavoured ice creams in Italian restaurants and gelaterias, it has become a highlight dessert at Otto’s Pizzeria in New York City and is also found in other restaurants across the US. Advocates of the combination even point to how olive oil is rich in naturally occurring antioxidants and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin E.

Olive oil has been little seen in the retail ice cream market, but over the past 12 months, two artisan producers have introduced olive oil ice creams to supermarkets. In summer 2015, Texas-based Lick introduced Dark Chocolate, Olive Oil & Sea Salt Ice Creams into stores around Texas. The recipe uses locally sourced ingredients, such as extra virgin olive oil from the Texas Olive Ranch and dairy and dark chocolate from Austin–based Great Bean.

Meanwhile in Australia, another olive oil ice cream is available in supermarkets courtesy of local supplier Two Fat Cows. Similar to Lick’s recipe, Two Fat Cows is made with extra virgin olive oil which is sourced locally, as well as dairy from the company’s own herd of Friesian cattle.


Ice cream containing sea salt has tripled between 2013 and 2015.

The idea of using olive oil to add a difference follows in the footsteps of sea salt’s rise in popularity in gelato and ice cream. Between July 2013 and July 2015, the number of global ice cream launches featuring sea salt as a flavour or ingredient tripled, largely reflecting the rise of sea salt and caramel flavours.

Yet other savoury seasonings can work well in ice cream, such as ground black pepper, offsetting the sweet flavour. Ice cream products with black pepper among the ingredients are all but absent. But among the small parlours, black pepper’s profile is growing. After all, compared with the stringent demands of retail, the out-of-home ice cream channel can afford to be more experimental, and launch more unconventional flavours. For example, Morgenstern’s Finest Ice Cream Parlor in New York City currently sells a Szechuan Peppercorn Chocolate flavour, as well as a Salt & Pepper Pinenut option.

According to Mintel’s Ice Cream and Desserts UK 2015 report, ice creams featuring a measured amount of ground black pepper as a flavour component could be well received by consumers in a number of global markets. For example, 48% of British adults are interested in trying ice cream made with ethnic ingredients, and 39% are interested in hot flavoured ice cream.


Half of Chinese ice cream users who have not tried sweet and savoury mixed ice cream are keen to do so.

Using savoury spices is also seen as a means for ice cream brands in Asia to deliver the exciting flavours more associated with the out-of-home channel. In Northern India for example, guava is sold by street vendors who slit the fruit and insert black rock salt and chaat masala – a combination of savoury spices and Himalayan pink salt. This has evolved from guava fruit to guava ice cream being topped with the spicy mixture. Adding ground black pepper and other spices to retail ice cream in India could been seen to help Western brands appeal to local tastes.

In China, over half of ice cream users have not tried sweet and savoury mixed ice cream, but would be keen to do so, according to Mintel’s research. The Chinese are continuously seeking ice cream products that offer greater variety in texture, flavours and sensations, thanks to rising incomes and an appreciation of gourmet recipes and unique flavours. 

So when you’re next thinking about flavours to offer to stand out from the competition, sprinkle a few crystals of sea salt or ground black pepper on top of a chocolate or caramel mix and get some out for testing with the foodies.

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Brexit: The Dairy Industry Impact

Amid the Brexit turmoil since the UK’s unforeseen exit from the European Union on 24th June, small and large business owners have unresolved questions about the impact on their firm’s sustainability, productivity and trade.

An EU exit means restricted access to the Single Market unless the UK, like other countries outside the EU, agrees to accept the free movement of people – an unlikely negotiation since immigration was a core argument of the Leave campaign. That said, certain EU trade regulations seen as burdening British businesses have been lifted, and retained membership of the European Economic Area but not the EU, provides access to the internal market and offers tax reductions of around £150 per person.

The dairy industry is central to the EU debate, with 40% of the EU’s budget spent on agriculture and Europe accounting for 73% of Britain’s agricultural exports. The chief executive of Dairy UK, Dr Judith Bryans, has reaffirmed that the UK’s dairy industry is “adaptable, resilient and determined, with the skills and innovation to rise to the many challenges we encounter”. Dairy UK did not take a side in the EU debate; according to Bryans, this is because trade association and dairy firms will “continue to operate in a global dairy market place and demonstrate [their] unwavering commitment to give the public nothing but the best of UK dairy.”

Arla Foods, a Denmark-based company operating in the UK, has been disappointed by the Brexit outcome, but is focused on minimizing negative impact on business by preserving trade between the UK and Europe.

Meurig Raymond, president of NFU, has stated that Brexit will “inevitably lead to a period of uncertainty in a number of areas that are of vital importance to Britain’s farmers.” According to the NFU, the primary destinations of UK food, beverage and animal feed exports were Ireland (£3.4bn), France (£2.1bn) and the USA (£1.9bn), leaving uncertainty over the post-Brexit influence on dairy exports.

The Leave campaign has been quick to assert, however, that the export market is not going to vanish: the demand for Welsh lamb will still exist in France, and Ireland will continue to sell beef to the UK. Whether it is enough to match the £11bn a year generated through agrifood exports to Europe is still uncertain for farmers and individuals in the dairy industry.

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Looking to the future for flavours in dairy

Feel the flavour
Flavours of the future won’t just be tasted but will be felt. The food market is really pushing the boundaries with development of new flavours and their delivery for example, Prosecco crisps with a prosecco flavour but also a fizzing in mouth experience. 
But also expect to see more flavours that give kokumi, or ‘mouthfullness’.

‘Umami’ and mouthfeel or fullness has become a lot understood over recent years, as a result we are seeing more seaweed being used. However, it also delivers rich salty notes and is a healthy ingredient. Kokumi is only just starting to be understood and we will see more of this in the future.

Far-flung and exotic flavours 

Opportunities to travel to increasingly far-flung and exotic destinations is still fuelling consumer desire to try new and unusual tastes.
There are lots of exciting trends inspired by tastes from all over the world and finding their way into restaurants and the wider food industry in Europe.
Food trend inspiration will continue to be found in South America thanks to this summer’s Olympic Games.

But we also have our eyes on Middle Eastern and African cuisines. Their popularity is being driven particularly by celebrity chefs (on the television and in the press) and growing numbers of restaurants specialising in flavours from these regions. Moroccan and Persian-inspired cuisines are also receiving a lot of attention, with a particular focus on Lebanese and Turkish flavours.

Adventurous Millennials
Young Millennials continue to be the key consumer group to target for testing out new flavours and are a highly attractive target group for many food and beverage manufacturers as they are open to try new flavours, be it for curiosity or for positioning themselves ‘in the know’ of new trends.

Products that work well in this group will allow for flavour experimentation and ‘excitement in the mouth,’ such as flavours that change during chewing or when combined with each other, she added. 

Adult-only flavours will emerge

Dairy is now opening its options more to being infused with alcohol, addressing the consumers need for more indulgent, premium offerings especially in yoghurts, cream sauces and ice cream.

We can expect to see a lot of ‘adult only’ flavours – less sweet and with alcohol – being launched, but there is no one category which is used to specifically test out new flavour innovations. One flavour can act very differently in different ‘end uses’. For instance you can’t necessarily use the same vanilla in an indulgent ice cream and in a vodka and expect them to taste the same. So producers are actively developing solutions to meet needs across various consumer desires, such as health, indulgence, energy or purity, across many different product forms.

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Did the snow cone start the ice cream revolution?

Ice cream’s origins are known to reach back as far as the second century B.C., although no specific date of origin nor inventor has been undisputably credited with its discovery. 

We know that Alexander the Great enjoyed snow and ice flavoured with honey and nectar. Biblical references also show that King Solomon was fond of iced drinks during harvesting. During the Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Caesar (A.D. 54-86) frequently sent runners into the mountains for snow, which was then flavored with fruits and juices.

Over a thousand years later, Marco Polo returned to Italy from the Far East with a recipe that closely resembled what is now called sherbet. Historians estimate that this recipe evolved into ice cream sometime in the 16th century. England seems to have discovered ice cream at the same time, or perhaps even earlier than the Italians. “Cream Ice,” as it was called, appeared regularly at the table of Charles I during the 17th century. France was introduced to similar frozen desserts in 1553 by the Italian Catherine de Medici when she became the wife of Henry II of France. It wasn’t until 1660 that ice cream was made available to the general public. The Sicilian Procopio introduced a recipe blending milk, cream, butter and eggs at Café Procope, the first café in Paris.

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Is Unilever’s calorie controlled decision right?

Unilever has confirmed that from spring 2016, its adult single-serve ice cream range will contain 250 calories or less in the UK.

That means no change for some of its products, but a size reduction for others.

A Unilever ice cream spokesperson is quoted as saying “that it has deliberately only changed the size of products that were above 250 calories, and not made any changes to some of the bestselling lines, nor to the recipes”.

“For example, none of the Cornetto products will be changing size as they are already 250 calories or fewer. And none of the standard Ben & Jerry’s 500ml tubs will be changing size”.

Some Magnums and individual tubs of Ben and Jerry’s ice cream will reduce in size to accommodate the calorie cap, with differing price drops, while other products will be removed from the market altogether.

“We set our retail prices based on a number of factors including commodity prices, but we ensure that they remain accessible to all by offering a broad range of products of various sizes and styles so that we can always cater to our consumers’ needs.”

Noel Clarke, brand building director for ice cream, Unilever UK & Ireland, said: “We have introduced this 250 calorie cap to help make it easier for our consumers to make informed and healthier choices when enjoying their favourite ice creams as part of a balanced lifestyle.

“It was important there be no compromise to taste or quality and that’s exactly what we’ve delivered. Our products will still taste as good as ever, but through a process of development and resizing we will ensure our entire single-serve ice cream portfolio will contain 250 calories or fewer.”

The move follows the introduction of products that are 110 calories or fewer across the children’s ice cream range.


The company says that through its Unilever Sustainable Living Plan, it is helping millions take action to improve their health and well-being.

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Study discovers cancer beating preservative in dairy products

The University of Michigan has just published results of a ground-breaking study which has found that nisin, a food preservative growing naturally on dairy products, may help kill cancer cells as well as antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

The study reports that Nisin contains “unusual amino acids” due to post-translational modifications.

“Increasing evidence indicates that nisin can influence the growth of tumors and exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells,” the report states. “Collectively, the application of nisin has advanced beyond its role as a food biopreservative. Thus, this review will describe and compare studies on nisin and provide insight into its future biomedical applications.”

The results

Dr. Yvonne Kapila, one of the study’s authors and professor at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry, told University of Michigan’s news website that rats fed a “nisin milkshake” saw a 70% to 80% reduction in head and neck tumor cells after a nine-week study. These rats also ended up surviving longer.

Other things nisin can help with, according to the study, include:

  • Antibiotic-resistant skin and soft tissue infections such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci
  • Oral health problems, such as periodontal diseases
  • Improving the immune system. For example, returning B- and T-lymphocytes levels to normal

However, all of these results were found in rodents only, so further studies will be needed to see how truly effective nisin is on treatment of these diseases or ailments.

Generally regarded as safe

The study said nisin is GRAS, or generally regarded as safe, and FDA approved as a peptide with recognition for clinical use.

“Over the past few decades, nisin has been used widely as a food biopreservative,” the study’s authors wrote in the abstract. “Since then, many natural and genetically modified variants of nisin have been identified and studied for their unique antimicrobial properties”.

It has been accepted as useful in biomedical fields. Researchers said nisin may have anti-biofilm properties that can work with conventional theory drugs and may activate the adaptive immune response and have an immunomodulatory role.

Although findings of this study are promising, the authors said there will need to be further validation of the biomedical uses of nisin via in vivo studies to evaluate it.

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Why a tiny gap makes a big difference for homogenization

What happens to a drop of milk as it passes through a homogenizer? How exactly does the drop break up, and where precisely does the break-up happen?

Groundbreaking research by Fredrik Innings, who is senior expert at Tetra Pak and associate professor of food engineering at Lund University, drew some interesting conclusions about this fundamental process that lies at the heart of the homogenizer.

What follows here is the abstract of that study. To read the study in full, fill in the form at the Tetra Pak website here.


Drop Break-up in High-Pressure Homogenizers


The overall aim of this project was to investigate the drop break-up process in milk homogenizers. This was done by measurements and calculations of the flow fields in the gap region and by visualization of drops being broken up.

To make visualization and measurements possible, two scale models of a homogenizer gap were developed. The full-scale model was a direct copy of the gap in a production-scale homogenizer, but with optical access. Normal operational homogenization pressures could be tested, and drops down to 5µm in diameter could be visualized.

The second model was scaled-up about 100 times ensuring that the relevant dimensionless groups were kept constant, so that the same factors governed the drop break-up process. The scaled-up model was made of transparent plastic and was used for both velocity field measurements and drop visualization.

From these measurements it was concluded that the drops did not break up in the entrance of the gap. Larger drops were elongated to some extent and smaller ones remained spherical. Not much happens in the gap itself. The velocity profile is very flat throughout the gap in a production-scale homogeniser.

In a pilot-scale homogeniser the boundary layers have time to grow and the velocity profile is almost developed at the gap exit. The growing shear layers seem to have a limited effect on the drops. During passage through the gap small drops will have time to relax back to their spherical shape, while large ones will leave the gap with almost the same aspect ratio as when they entered it.

This study shows that drop break-up takes place in the turbulent jet at the gap outlet. The flow velocity measurements show a very unsteady jet breaking down faster than a jet in a free liquid. Depending on the geometry of the chamber at the gap outlet, the jet can attach to either of the 45-degree walls and become a wall jet.

The turbulence in the jet is very high, with turbulence intensities of 50-100%. Indications were found that flow structures of the size of, or slightly smaller than, the gap height, have very high intensities. Drop deformation experiments and theoretical analyses show that the eddies breaking up the drops range in size from much larger than, to just smaller than, the drop. The larger eddies deform the drop viscously by the velocity gradient created by the eddy. The smaller eddies deform the drop by fluid inertia.

The critical phase of the drop break-up process is the initial deformation. If the drop is deformed to an aspect ratio of 3-5, the drop is then very quickly elongated into one or more filaments which may be bent, coiled and further deformed before they break up into many small droplets.

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